February 3

Episode 70: Decoding the Intelligence of Answers with Brian Glibkowski


Did you know that there are six different answer styles and which one you choose gives clues to your personality type? Researcher and author Dr. Brian Glibkowski joins Mike this week to discuss his research into answer intelligence and how you can learn how to raise your AQ.

Dr. Brian Glibkowski’s Biography

Dr. Brian Glibkowski is the creator of Answer Intelligence. He is an author, researcher, and futurist who authored an article on questions that has been recognized by the Association of Human Resource Development as one of ten articles that will shape the 21st century.

In This Episode, You’ll Learn…

  • The function of questions and answers
  • Six different answer types
  • The five high AQ practices
  • How to choose which answer type to use to influence the person you’re speaking with
  • Why it’s important to recognize others’ preferred communication styles
  • Why you should learn to recognize the type of answers people are looking for and use those types of answers to boost your influence 
  • Why you should learn to be flexible and be able to use answer types other than the ones you prefer to use


  • “What is the function of an answer? The function of an answer is to influence.” —Brian Glibkowski
  • “If you don’t provide that right answer, then your credibility goes down.” —Brian Glibkowski
  • “We have to sort of be aware and mindful of the answers we prefer and being open to other answers.” —Brian Glibkowski
  • “If you don’t have the intelligence to communicate something as an answer, what good is it related to emotional intelligence? You can have the ability to understand what someone else is going through. If you can’t provide a story, you know, to make them feel comfortable, what good is it? So to me, this is the relationship between these constructs, emotional intelligence, and cognitive intelligence.” —Brian Glibkowski

Links & Resources Mentioned…

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Read The Transcript

Episode #70

Mike O'Neill: Welcome back to the Get Unstuck & On Target Podcast. I'm Mike O'Neill with Bench Builders and we help business leaders solve the tough people problems that are slowing their company's growth. Joining me today from just outside of Chicago is Dr. Brian Glibkowski. Dr. Glibkowski is the creator of Answer Intelligence. Brian is an author, researcher and futurist, who will be sharing how you can leverage your answer intelligence to increase your influence with others. Welcome Brian. 

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Thank you, Mike. I'm happy to be here. 

Mike O'Neill: I want to share a little bit more background on you and that is Brian's journey started with this research on questions. He authored an article on questions that's been recognized by the association of human resource development as one of 10 articles that will shape the 21st century. But it was during your research, Brian, on questions that, as I understand it, one simple observation stopped you in your track. And that is, we know a lot about questions, but we know very little about answers. And that led to your new book. Answer intelligence, Raise Your AQ in which you introduce a whole new science of answers and, would like to congratulate you. It's been nominated for the 2022 pros award for professional and scholarly excellence. Well done. 

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Thank you, Mike. That's a, that's a great introduction. It's all downhill from here, as they say, right?

Mike O'Neill: Oh, I beg to differ because we've already had chance to get know each other and there are a lot of things we could talk about, but what I would like to suggest, we kind of focus on is a bit about the key ideas that you have picked up on researching answers. And if you would, while we're together, I'd like to get your insights on some ways in which we all can learn and practice and use high AQ practices. So I love to some time with you on that. But why don't we just start with your academic background? You are very much an academic and therefore you're approaching this from a very scientific standpoint. We do probably have some very well-educated listeners here, but let's talk a little bit about the science of what you're learning and the science of answers.

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Yeah. I, you know, just maybe wanna go back to sort of, my question based research, keep it sort of broad. Basically as a social science we're we're trained in question asking and we develop surveys. These were essentially items, that are questions, and all of us have, or many of us have been in college and experienced projects, research projects. We have the research question and I really, I think academia very similar to other professions is very focused on questions. And then, you know, in your introduction, you alluded to other professions and our overall understanding of questions. And if you think of other professions, sales question-based methodologies, those that are executive coaches, question-based methodologies. In our book, we did research with physicians. They're trained on question-based approaches and, basically they're not trained on answers. And, and going back to grade school now, you think of what you learn in grade school, the six, wh questions, why, what, how, when, where, and who opened and closed questions. And we didn't learn about anything similar of the different answer types. And this really was the door. I want it to open and understand more with my research on answers. 

Mike O'Neill: You've opened the door and you've kind of got my curiosity there. What did you find that it kind of emerged and that is you saw that the power of answers has been kind of overlooked, but from a layman perspective, how can a typical business person benefit from, by buying your book and learning more about that?

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Yeah, that's a good question. So, first of all, this is a science of answers, but it's connected to questions. When we ask questions, we need answers. So there's a yin and yang to that, and there's a focus on the answers. And to answer your question. Why is answer intelligence important. Why are answers important? I like to, to discuss that in reference to questions. If we think of the function of questions, there's many functions of questions. A primary function of a question is curiosity. We ask something, we ask about something we do not know the answer. Then the counterpart, what is the function of an answer? The function of an answer is to influence someone. So with that framing, I think it really resonates with, business executives, leaders, emerging leaders, sales individuals. You want to influence others around you. And when you provide an answer, you influence them. And we're, I know we're going to talk about the different answer types and maybe I'll just briefly mention the six of them and give you one high level example, but we're talking about answers, like story, metaphor, procedure, action, concept, and theory, which is like business strategy. So we all know that, you know, if your daughter asks you a question about, and I talk about this in my TEDx, you know, what is beauty? You could provide a metaphor to, you know, really land that's the, understand the subtlety of it, or you're working with a subordinate and they're really struggling and you could provide a story about how you overcame similar challenges. So both the metaphor and the story, and these examples are influencing someone else. And basically this is a framework for influence. So I think it's a framework for almost everyone. 

Mike O'Neill: You know, the term influence is one in which it could be misconstrued. Influence. When you use the term influence, use AQ to improve your influence. How do you describe that? 

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: You know, I think, you know, influence, I think you're alluding to that you could sort of have sort of a positive influence or a manipulative influence. And I think, you know, like any concept you can sort of go in either direction. But I think viewing it from the positive lens, it's understanding and helping people find the answers they need to be successful. The answers are looking for in life. Validating their answers. So it's positive. And of course you could use this for nefarious, you know, reasons, you know, to, to unduly influence someone with, with a story, just to sort of then set up a series of questions and conversations that move you towards your goal or outcome. So, you know, I think you could go in either direction, but I would say that's probably true for almost any kind of skill you could use it for positive or negative. So I tend not to focus on that, although that's probably, it would be something interesting to focus on. 

Mike O'Neill: So Brian will help you influence me and our listeners. I alluded to six high AQ practices. Could we say as a starting point, can I get you to revisit those? What are those? 

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Yeah, so just to be clear, there's, there's six answers and there's five high AQ practices. I know that's a confusing, but, to, to explain what these are and where they came from, just briefly. During the research, the original research we interviewed the top golf instructors in the world is ready to buy golf digest and golf magazine to basically find out how they provided answers and influenced others. And from that original research as an expert study, these were individuals in the upper half of the 99th percentile, their profession. And from that research, we identified these five high AQ practices and, and these were basically principles or techniques of how they answered. And so, you know, maybe I'll I'll, mentioned them all now, but maybe talk about the first one, just cause they're all sort of detailed, but basically high AQ practice. One is provide, be able to provide six answers, provide the right answer to a given question. So think about this way. If you are a sales organization, your value proposition should be communicated in terms of six answers, you know, stories for your value, a metaphor for key concepts, defining key concepts of your product, like reliability, efficiency, or creativity, procedures and actions of, of how the client works with you and then theory, which is a cause and effect logic or a strategy. You know, they're gonna, they're gonna buy your product and that's going to lead to, innovation for the client or, or efficiency for the client. So these are all basic things we use. So as a sales organization, high AQ practice one, is do you know, six answers for your value proposition? And then when any given question comes up, can you provide the right answer? So for example, You may be further along in the buying cycle and they, they believe in your product, but now they're asking how does it work? And so you interpret that by, you know, maybe it's showing key actions or features of your products, or maybe laying out a procedure of how we're going to implement this. And if you don't provide that right answer, then your credibility goes down. You're influenced by. So that's high AQ practice one. And then maybe I'll just allude to the, the others, maybe that go through it. Cause it's it's might be too much to start with, but high AQ practices, two through five are basically different combinations of answers and different things to be aware of, to be effective and influence others. So I'll mention one, for example, high AQ practice four is realizing we each have different styles we prefer for answers. So there's a visual, I'm sure you'll, map, you know, link people to on our website. But imagine this and think about this yourself and your listeners. Think about this. What type of answers do you think? If you prefer stories and metaphors you're relational, you're right. Like to make emotional connections. We've all had a boss that tells stories after stories. Well, that person's relational. So to influence them, you want to make sure to provide stories and metaphors. Then we have the analytical person that prefers concepts and theories. And for example, that's me when, before he did this research, you know, I used to teach in and I wasn't practical at all. I wouldn't provide any, anything. I would just prefer to talk about theory and concepts. So that that's an analytical person. Then we have procedures and actions are related to practical, you know, the person that just wants to know how do I do it, procedures and actions. So as you're communicating, you have to know your own style. What are your preferences to look at gaps and maybe realize that you always try to tell that story, but maybe for some, for someone they don't need the story. Or an also of course, that's another person you're communicating with. So this is recognizing communication style and that's a really, important, Thing to understand.

Mike O'Neill: This is very powerful as I'm listening to you. I tend to gravitate towards the practical, but I am drawn to the relational. And so let's think about leaders. Leaders are influencing others. Leaders can influenced others because they work for them. They could be influencing others because they are perhaps selling to them. Leaders could be influencing because they're providing, services. You mentioned physicians, the variety is endless. But in your book, do you kinda walk the reader through how to quickly assess if that's the right term? The perferred style of the person you're interacting with? 

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Yeah. There's some, some rules of thumb we go through and, and, you know, this is not a, a cookbook where, you know, you follow these three steps in a row and you always do this or that there's different approaches and there's subtlety. But that being said, let's talk about some general, tendencies to indicate a preferred style. One is look at the answers you're providing. And when you provide a story, does the person lean in or do they retract, you look at their body language you look at, are they receptive to it? Do they ask follow on questions? You ask you look at the type of questions are asking. So people ask a how question, how do I do this? They probably want a procedure reaction. That's a little bit easier to get at. Sometimes someone may ask a why question, but it might be implicit. So, for example, if I'm a leader in an organization and someone selling to me, I may not come out and say, well, why should I buy from you? But you can tell by the early stage of the meeting, typically what executives are interested in that this person might want a story, you know, perhaps, or, or a theory. So you have to sort of gauge where they are. You can also use meta conversation. You can ask them, you can say, would it be okay if I started with a story and then they're going to directly tell you, no, no, I don't want a story. I, you know, I want to know, you know, how do you define this? What do you know? What is this? So, you know, it's not as hard as it seems. And the other thing I like to point out is conversations about a flow. And once you start getting in the flow of someone, you can start to move around. And then also as you start to give correct answers or right answers, people are more forgiving. If you start a conversation and all of a sudden in your three or four answers in and it's going well, you're in, right. And then also you more leeway and you can, you know, make mistakes and you sort of, you sort of after several, several questions and answers, you sort of understand where people are coming from. So. That's something you could do. Another thing you can do is if you're a lot of times with, there's team selling or team communication. Let's say I'm a, I'm a leader. And, we're doing a project and there's multiple people around the table. You know, everyone can sort of work together to figure out the type of answers that someone's looking for and, just be listening for that and be willing to jump in. So those are just a couple ideas. Hopefully some of those make sense. 

Mike O'Neill: You know we've used several different examples. What comes immediately to mind is the sales process. Whereas my understanding is people have maybe different questions depending on where they are in the buying process. So there's going to be differences in the questions and what their needs are depending on where they are. So that's one thing you have to be mindful of. You said something else that that was important and that is you have to understand your own preferred style. Because do we not have a tendency to just assume that our preferred style is the person you're interacting with that's their preferred style as well?

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Yeah. Yeah, I think it's so true. One, that's a great observation. And one, one of many things we've discovered in the research is this tendency to be myopic with our own style and our own answer modes. So for example, there's a free test on our website, explore AQ you can link to intake, but in there it gives you a series of prompts questions in which type of answer would you use. And there are a subset of individuals that no matter what the question is, they always provide a story. And then at first they're sort of frustrated because, you know, stories the answer to everything, but that's not true. And you look at, for example, the advertising industry, they focus on story a lot, but in the book we have brand AQ and it's a, it's an example of a, an insurance company, Boston mutual life insurance that developed six answers for their brand, you know, full. You look at other examples, In in the safety industry, there's a, a certified executive in our, in our network that's a safety expert and he talks about the aviation industry and they tend to focus very myopically on procedures. Everything's procedures, procedures, procedures, and, you know, thousands of pages of manuals. But when there's a crisis, like, you know, I talked to this individual, about, the crisis such as when Sully Sullivan landed on the Hudson. What did he do? He ditched the procedures. He had mental models, concepts of how to do things. He had stories of a split second story is that gave him the confidence to land that plane. And it, it was not the procedures, but it was throwing the procedures away in that instance. So yeah, we have to sort of be aware and mindful of the answers we prefer and being open to other answers. And I do think that's a sign of expertise. Throw that out there. If you're an expert, you can provide all six answers and that's a that's a test for anyone that thinks they really have a great story. Can you transform that into the other answer modes? Maybe. Maybe not. 

Mike O'Neill: So people who are watching or listening to this and say, ah, Dr. Glibkowski he's onto something here. I want to learn more. How do you walk the reader through in your book? And through other resources? How does one get better at, is it through practice? Is what is the way that we can assess? You've mentioned you can do that initial online assessment. 

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Yeah, yeah. Let me go over some, some ideas. This is a skill so you can improve on skills. And there are these five high AQ practices, and you can learn about how questions meet up to answers. You can learn about what makes an effective answer. Like for example, what is an effective concept? A concept can be defined and a concept can be broken down into smaller peices. So, for example, if you ask me what leadership is, I could say it's inspiring people and holding them accountable. It's, dimensionalizing it. And many people that have very weak understanding of concepts, can't define it. They can't break it down. It's just a sort of vague thing. And that causes problems because you need precision in order to communicate with someone and to, you know, use concepts. So going back to the, the, the broader point here, you can learn the five high AQ practices. You can learn what. And the answer affective. So that's knowledge. And when you have that, then you can combine that with really studying the areas you're interested in. If you want to be an effective leader you know what the secret is, you have to eat it, breathe, it, sleep it. You have to think about leadership. You have to observe the world around you and say, you know, you know, Mike's a great leader. What's Mike doing, you know, what's other, what are other people doing? Think about it. And, case in point, when we studied the top golf instructors in the world, when they were studying their craft and they viewed it very broadly, everything from psychology to physics. You know, one of the golf instructors at a library of 3,500 books. You don't, you don't have to have 3,500 books, but if you think you're a leader, you better have gone through your mind and thought through all these stories, maybe metaphors and theories, and you're, you're just, you're totally engrossed in that world. And when you combine that sort of thoughtfulness, the content knowledge with understanding of AQ, and then you start to apply it and practice it and make it a habit and use it every day. You're going to improve. And to give you one very, concise example that we all know is true and then I'll relate it to AQ more broadly. We've all been on interviews, job interviews early in our career. And, you know, hopefully, you know, going back to real in-person interviews at some point, but let's do the virtual interviews and we can all recall back when we were a junior person and we tend to, as a junior person, you interview with a lot of companies, right. And you get a lot of interviews. And as you start going through the interview sequence you know, it's like a sales funnel and all of a sudden everything's hitting and ideally have five, 10 interviews all at the same time. And you're excited. Well, as you're going through that process, you, you, everyone uses these answers. So for example, when you do your first interview, maybe you tell a story, it doesn't quite work. Then your next interview, tell a story. Not quite eventually, maybe your third interview, you nail that story. And then that's a story. You go to every other interview. So the point is, you know, with practicing story, you get better. Now, if you have a more, precise understanding of questions and answers and conversations, the level that you can increase just, just is amplified and you can do better. So you just gotta try it, practice. And all of a sudden, before you know it, you're going to be much more effective than you thought you could be.

Mike O'Neill: You mentioned earlier a sales team scenario by which the people around the table, probably know their natural strengths, but the team as a team, if they're in a presentation setting, they've got to read the room. They've got to be able to adapt. A lot of people in today's economy, aren't on teams. We have a lot of solo preneurs and the, like. If the goal is to practice, understand it and to practice. If you don't have any body to run that by, you basically have to practice it and go back and either take literal notes. But mental notes, you mentioned the candidate is that you realize that the story may take practice to kind of prefect until it really feels natural. For people who don't really have others who can provide that kind of feedback is that what they just need to do is just be very disciplined, pay attention to what happened, what was said, and take kind of a more of a you'll love this word kind of a more scientific approach.

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Yeah. I like, of course I liked the word science and, you know, being purposeful. You know, I think that's a big part of the habit literature more broadly is that we're intentional with what we do. And to be frank, the book I think, has been received very well in the framework in part, because we've switched from a world where we took things for granted as communicators, you know, the hour lunches are face-to-face and now we're all Zoom and things are, you know, compressive time and things like non-verbals are not as effective. What matters is, can you hold an effective conversation concisely, and that makes, that allows you to win. So my point is before we took it for granted, we were clumsy. Now we're in a situation we have to be purposeful. So use this opportunity now where we're going to be in this world of, of, you know, virtualization, probably, indefinitely. And I think a lot of people are still in denial that we're going to be going back or just saying, I don't like a virtual meetings. Well, we use this as an opportunity to upscale and, and nail it. But, if you're to go back to your point about being a solo entrepreneur, I think one of the simplest things you can do is focused on high AQ practice one, know six answers. Mike Sankey, McDonald's USA recently retired CFO, friend of AQ has said that in his estimation, you know, 60%. Of AQ's value is simply knowing there are six answers. If something's important to you, you know, be methodical about it and think through the different answer types. You know, the best communicators are going to go off script. You got to start someplace, so you have to prepare. And related to this. I have I've coached students on interviews and our book we've have an interview AQ chapter. And I had a great student who landed a job at, a big four accounting firm, very prestigious. And she credited a lot of it with AQ. Fairness she was a great candidate, but one of the things she would do is she made sure for points that were important to her job candidacy, she communicated all six answers during every interview. So she wanted them to know, even if they were poor communicators and didn't ask the right questions, she wanted them to know that she knew, you know, how to answer the why, what and how questions for her number one soft skill. And, that takes discipline. Because imagining what would happen in an interview or a sales context, if you never provided the procedure and action answers, at least at a high level, what could happen? Rhetorical question? What could happen is later on when they think about you as a candidate, they'll say, oh, they never really talked about, you know, how they're going to get this done. Well, they must not know how to do it. Or, you know, you fill in the blank, you know, you don't allow someone to fill in the blank. You provide the answers that are needed. Oftentimes it's all six answers. 

Mike O'Neill: Excellent. You know, I'm listening to, as you described, we open by introducing AQ people neatly thought, well, how does that compare to IQ? And then by extension, I'm kind of thinking out loud, how does this compare to emotional intelligence? Can you speak to that? 

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Yeah, I can. I can use a metaphor. You know, so a metaphor for AQ is a spear. When you think of IQ and EQ it's like the shaft of the spear. It provides direction and force. The AQ is the cutting edge. So let me elaborate on that metaphor. So basically you could be high on IQ, you know, we've all heard of the person that, you know, super smart. But, you know, they have no they can't tell me how to do something, or they can't tell me why I should do it. If you don't have the intelligence to communicate something as an answer, what good is it. Related to emotional intelligence? You can have the ability to understand that someone else is going through pain. If you can't provide a story, you know, to, to make them feel comfortable what good is it? So to me, this is the relationship between these constructs, emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence, you know, IQ, our antecedents stands for intelligence. It's a different types of intelligence and it's consistent with really the last 25 years of the intelligence literature that talks about multiple forms of intelligence. So this is just another, I think important type of intelligence that you need to be effective. 

Mike O'Neill: Great answer, Brian. We will usually ask our guests this question. And keeping with the name of this podcast. Think about a situation where perhaps you, a client, maybe one of your students got stuck and what did it take you or them to get unstuck? 

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Yeah, I'm going to double down on something I said before, but sort of amplify this and something we've been talking about. So many of us have an answer, you know, a, an approach that we're most comfortable with, or even just a singular answer. What I encourage anyone to do and myself included to get unstuck is you take the answer that you've been thinking about say its a story right. You know, there's something not working and you're telling this story this narrative is to try to transform that into the other answer types, to think about it from a different direction. So if I'm telling myself a story about why clients should work with us, can I transform that into a procedure that relates to how they work with us in the in the next meeting or the second meeting or the third meeting? Or can I transform that procedure and really define the key concepts that I think are important and challenge myself. So what I found is that when you transform one answer into other answers, you start to get unstuck. You start to realize maybe the, the flaws in your logic. If you just fixate on like your story or your theory or whatever it is, you're stuck on. That's not often a good way to see your blind spot. It's only when you transform it somewhere else that you realize how big the gap is. For example, since we've been talking about selling, if you communicate a story about your product to the client and then your client turns around and says, well, how would my sales rep use that? You know, or how would my leaders use that in your software? If you cannot connect the story to the how question you have a problem, you know, that that's a case where the client has you stuck, but you know, you yourself, you can get yourself unstuck and make sure you have all the right answers to be effective. So that's my advice is to think about all six answers and has, a really a profound effect on you getting clarity on any given answer and how all the answers hand together. 

Mike O'Neill: Excellent. Brian, as you kind of reflect on what we've discussed thus far, I may have overlooked something that was important or you would like to reinforce something. What would you like to be your closing thoughts or take aways?

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: That's a, that's a good question. I think we have emphasized six answers and I think that's important. Maybe I'll emphasize, since I mentioned Mike Sankey, friend of AQ another thing he observed. And this will relate to the different styles of communication. So I think that's very powerful to think through your styles, because as we all know, when we have a certain style or tendency, when things get difficult, we tend to default to it. And we need to be able to break away from our defaults. You know, if we're nervous, we tell the story to the clients, you know, they might not always be the right approach. But what Mike Sankey shared with me is that as you progress throughout your career, and his estimation of how you progress through AQ is that we often start with procedures and actions early in our careers. You know, how we do things. And he was referring to accountants that he would supervise. They would know the procedures and the actions, their practical. Then they move to the theory and concepts, the analytical in this case, how would gap standards relate to the business? Can you communicate those to non, you know, financial persons, also connect, accounting to business strategy theory. And then as they progressed, they to be able to do that. And finally, those that made it to the corner suites the senior executives were the ones that could provide stories and metaphors to connect more broadly, to cut across the organization, to explain these big ideas and make that connection. So I think that's a, a good final point to think of if you're looking to progress in your career. And I think it's one example of how maybe you could combine different styles and the importance of all the styles to be effective. And the last point to punctuate this is that in our original research, we talked about Renaissance communicators. You think of Martin Luther king, Steve Jobs. They were good at all the styles. They could communicate everywhere effectively. And ultimately I think in your career to be most effective, you have to be able to provide all six answers. So that brings us back to the original point that Mike Sankey points out. So I'll leave it at that. I've really enjoyed, the interview Mike thank you.

Mike O'Neill: Well, I've enjoyed it as well. I am confident people listening to this are going to want to learn more. If they want to reach out and connect with you, what's the best way for them to do so. 

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Yeah, they can go to my website, https://www.raiseyouraq.com/. They can fill out a contact form. They can connect with me in LinkedIn, Brian Glibkowski. I would also encourage people to take the Explorer AQ free assessment. You get a 10 page PDF report, to take that on our website. So those are some things someone could do. And of course, someone could buy the book, Answer Intelligence it's sold at Amazon. You can find it there. Those are a couple of things someone could do. If they want to learn more or can in touch with me. 

Mike O'Neill: We will include all of those in the show notes. Brian. Thank you. 

Dr. Brian Glibkowski: Thank you again, Mike. It's been my pleasure. 

Mike O'Neill: I also want to thank our listeners for joining us today. Every Thursday, we upload the latest episode to all the major platforms. So if you haven't already, please subscribe. Got a question. Are people problems keeping you up at night? If, yes, let's talk head to bench-builders.com to schedule a quick call. We'll explore ways to help you solve your people problems. So you can again, focus on growing your business. So I want to thank you for joining us, and I hope you have picked up on some tips from Brian that will help you Get Unstuck & On Target. Until next time.

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